Bujang Valley Tourism Co-Creation In Place Branding: The Role Of Local Community
Despite its well-known reputation for its unique archaeological artefacts’ findings and its historical sites, Bujang Valley or locally known as Lembah Bujang situated in Kedah Malaysia is unable to attract tourists in large numbers, specifically during post Covid-19 pandemic. This study aims to fill the gap by defining the role of local communities in branding Bujang Valley since local community engagement is imperative since they fulfil multiple functions in place branding. 20 locals were approached through convenience sampling for a semi-structured interview in defining their roles and views on the distinctiveness of place identity, culture, economy and hopes as well as their major involvement in the co-creation of the place branding. This exploratory study reveals that the local community are positive and share collective values towards uplifting the brand image specifically in respect to tourism factors, yet the authenticity and the core value should be sustained. The insights gathered provides a novel conceptualization in reproposing a new brand for Bujang Valley. In the future, Bujang Valley should continue to leverage its unique and well-received characteristics, highly considering the direct and indirect roles of the local community towards the process of place branding.
Keywords: Place branding, Place identity, Malaysian Community, Place transformation, Bujang Valley
Ashworth, G. (2009). The instruments of place branding: How is it done?. European Spatial Research and Policy, 16(1), 9-22.
Barghi, R., Zakaria, Z., Jaafar, M., & Hamzah, A. (2017). Students’ awareness and attitudes toward archaeological conservation: Bujang Valley. Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development.
Berrada, M. (2018). Towards a holistic place branding model: A conceptual model proposal. Chinese Business Review, 17(5), 223-237.
Braun, E., Kavaratzis, M., & Zenker, S. (2010). My City-My Brand: The role of residents in place branding. Paper presented at the 50th European Regional Science Association Congress.
Choi, H. C., & Murray, I. (2010). Resident attitudes toward sustainable community tourism. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 18(4), 575-594.
Cleave, E., & Arku, G. (2014). Competitiveness through cooperation: Analysis of spatial patterns and inter-jurisdictional collaboration in the place branding of Ontario communities, Canada. Local Economy, 29(4-5), 541-560.
Codó, E., Dans, L., & Wei, M. M. (2008). Interviews and questionnaires. The Blackwell Guide to Research Methods in Bilingualism and Multilingualism, 158-176.
Daldanise, G. (2020). From place-branding to community-branding: A collaborative decision-making process for cultural heritage enhancement. Sustainability, 12(24), 10399.
Department of Statistics, Malaysia. (2020). Kependudukan Negeri Kedah. MALAYSIA.
Dworkin, S. L. (2012). Sample Size Policy for Qualitative Studies Using In-Depth Interviews. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 41(6), 1319-1320. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-012-0016-6
Florian, B. (2002). The city as a brand: Orchestrating a unique experience. In T. Hauben, M. Vermeulen, & V. Patteeuw (Eds.), City branding: Image building and building images (pp. 144-153). Rotterdam: Nai Uitgevers.
Fusch, P., & Ness, L. (2015). Are we there yet? Data saturation in qualitative research. The Qualitative Report, 20, 1408-1416.
Giampiccoli, A., & Saayman, M. (2018). Community-based tourism development model and community participation. African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure, 7(4), 1-27.
Goudy, W. J. (1990). Community attachment in a rural region. Rural Sociology, 55(2), 178-198.
Govers, R. (2020). Imaginative communities and place branding. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 16(1), 1-5.
Guest, G., Bunce, A., & Johnson, L. (2006). How many interviews are enough? An experiment with data saturation and variability. Field Methods, 18(1), 59-82.
Hankinson, G. (2004). Relational network brands: Towards a conceptual model of place brands. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 10(2), 109-121.
Jabatan Warisan Negara Malaysia (JWNM). (2021). Tapak Arkeologi Sungai Batu. MALAYSIA. Retrieved from https://www.heritage.gov.my/info/pejabat-zon-utara/tapak-arkeologi-sungai-batu.html
Jusoh, A., & Sabin, Y. S. (2017). Analysis of heritage sites’ attractiveness in relation to archaeotourism development in Bujang Valley (Kedah). International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 7(6), 690-702.
Kagungan, D., Utoyo, B., & Zainal, A. G. (2023). Media branding policy strategy “The Heart of West Lampung” in tourism destination development. Res Militaris, 13(1), 420-435.
Kavaratzis, M., & Ashworth, G. J. (2006). City branding: An effective assertion of identity or a transitory marketing trick?. Place branding, 2, 183-194.
Kavaratzis, M., & Kalandides, A. (2009). Place branding as a strategic instrument in urban development. Paper presented at the 5th International Colloquium – Academy of Marketing: Brand, Identity and Reputation SIG, Cambridge, UK.
Kavaratzis, M., & Hatch, M. J. (2013). The dynamics of place brands: An identity-based approach to place branding theory. Marketing theory, 13(1), 69-86. https://doi.org/10.1177/1470593112467268
Kavaratzis, M. (2017). The participatory place branding process for tourism: linking visitors and residents through the city brand. In G. I. G. Vargas & S. R. Juaneda (Eds.), Tourism in the city: Towards an integrative agenda on urban tourism (pp. 93-107). Springer.
Kaushik, M., & Guha, D. (2021). Resurgence of Second Wave of Pandemic Covid-19 and Its Impact on Physical and Mental Well-Being of Employees & Coping Mechanism. European Journal of Business and Management, 13(10), 136-145. https://doi.org/10.7176/ejbm/13-1012
Kavoura, A. (2014). Social media, online imagined communities and communication research. Library Review, 63(6/7), 490-504. https://doi.org/10.1108/LR-02-2014-0019
Khatri, P., & Gupta, P. (2019). Development and validation of employee wellbeing scale – a formative measurement model. International Journal of Workplace Health Management, 12(5), 352–368. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJWHM-12-2018-0161
Kotler, P., Haider, D., & Rein, I. (1993). There's no place like our place! The marketing of cities, regions, and nations. The Futurist, 27(6), 14-19.
Kotler, P. (2002). Marketing places. Simon and Schuster.
Lucarelli, A., & Olof Berg, P. (2011). City branding: a state‐of‐the‐art review of the research domain. Journal of place management and development, 4(1), 9-27. https://doi.org/10.1108/17538331111106953
Man, Mohamad Sohaimi. Integration of UiTM Perak Campus with Tourism Malaysia Perak as an Academic Community. Idealogy Journal, [S.l.], v. 3, n. 2, p. 255-264, sep. 2018. ISSN 2550-214X
Mayaka, M., Croy, W. G., & Cox, J. W. (2017, August.) Participation as motif in community- based tourism: a practice perspective. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 25(8-9), 1243-1259. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2017.1359278.
Mohd Tahir, Hanafi; Baharom, Shahrel Nizar; Abd Rashid, Mohd Shahril. The Role of Visual Communication During Covid Pandemic 19. Idealogy Journal, [S.L.], V. 5, N. 2, P. 35-40, Sep. 2020. Issn 2550-214x.
Montoya, Peter (2002), The Personal branding Phenomenon, Nashville, Vaughan Printing
Morgan, D. L. (2010). Reconsidering the role of interaction in analyzing and reporting focus groups. Qualitative Health Research, 20(5), 718-722. doi:10.1177/1049732310364627
Mohammadifar, Y., & Rousta, A. (2018). The necessities and consequences of city branding and emphasizing the economy of urban tourism. Journal of Urban Economics and Management, 6, 55–69.
Murphy, S. A. (2018). Revisiting the Bujang Valley: A Southeast Asian entrepôt complex on the maritime trade route. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 28(2), 355-389.
Nursanty, E. (2021). The anatomy of place branding: relating place transformation to community identity. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 17(1), 19-35.
Omar, M. W., Mohammed, S., Nordin, R., Johari, A., & Ibrahim, S. (2010). Hidden tales of the Bujang Valley. Asian Culture and History, 2(2), 221.
Papadopoulos, N. (2004). Place branding: Evolution, meaning and implications. Place branding, 1, 36-49.
Park, E., Phandanouvong, T., & Kim, S. (2017). Evaluating participation in community-based tourism: a local perspective in Laos. Current Issues in Tourism. DOI: 10.1080/13683500.2017.1323851.
Pasquinelli, C. (2013). Competition, cooperation and co-opetition: Unfolding the process of inter-territorial branding. Urban Research & Practice, 6(1), 1-18.
PricewaterhouseCoopers, L. L. P. (2005). The economic benefits of higher education qualifications. Royal Society of Chemistry & Insitute of Physics. January: PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP. Retrieved January 9, 2017, from https://www.rsc.org/globalassets/04-campaigning-outreach/campaigning/highereducation/economic-benefits-higher-education-qualifications-report.pdf
Rainisto, S. K. (2003). Success factors of place marketing: A study of place marketing practices in Northern Europe and the United States. Helsinki University of Technology.
Rizkavirwan, D., & Tirtadarma, E. (2022). Personal branding on Instagram: Visual framing analysis on the West Java Governor candidates online campaign. Idealogy Journal, 7(1), 1-7.
Scannell, L., & Gifford, R. (2010). Defining place attachment: A tripartite organizing framework. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 30(1), 1-10.
Schmidt, H., & Baumgarth, C. (2014). Introducing a conceptual model of brand orientation within the context of social entrepreneurial businesses. International Journal of Strategic Innovative Marketing, 1(1), 221-236.
Smith, A. D. (1995). Gastronomy or geology? The role of nationalism in the reconstruction of nations. Nations and Nationalism, 1(1), 3-23.
Stedman, R. C. (2002). Toward a social psychology of place: Predicting behavior from place-based cognitions, attitude, and identity. Environment and Behavior, 34(5), 561-581.
Stylidis, D. (2017). Place attachment, perception of place and residents’ support for tourism development. Tourism Planning & Development, 14(2), 173-191. https://doi.org/10.1080/21568316.2017.1318775
Stylidis, D., & Quintero, A. M. D. (2022). Understanding the Effect of Place Image and Knowledge of Tourism on Residents’ Attitudes Towards Tourism and Their Word-of-Mouth Intentions: Evidence from Seville, Spain. Tourism Planning & Development, 19(5), 433-450.
Stepchenkova, S., Kirilenko, A. P., & Morrison, A. M. (2009). Facilitating content analysis in tourism research. Journal of Travel Research, 47(4), 454-469.
Van den Berg, G. J. (1990). Nonstationarity in job search theory. The Review of Economic Studies, 57(2), 255-277.
Vaske, J. J., & Kobrin, K. C. (2001). Place attachment and environmentally responsible behavior. The Journal of Environmental Education, 32(4), 16-21.
Vela, J. D. S. E., Nogué, J., & Govers, R. (2017). Visual landscape as a key element of place branding. Journal of Place Management and Development, 10(1), 23-44.
Yeoman, I., & McMahon-Beattie, U. (2016). The future of food tourism. Journal of Tourism Futures, 2(1), 95-98.
Zenker, S., & Braun, E. (2010). Branding a city: A conceptual approach for place branding and place brand management. Proceedings of the 39th European Marketing Academy Conference, Copenhagen, Denmark, 1-4 June 2010.
Zenker, S., & Rütter, N. (2014). Is satisfaction the key? The role of citizen satisfaction, place attachment and place brand attitude on positive citizenship behavior. Cities, 38, 11-17.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
UiTM Press (the Publisher) has agreed to publish the undersigned author’s paper in Idealogy Journal. The agreement is contingent upon the fulfilment of a number of requirements listed below.
1. The undersigned author warrants that the paper entitled below is original, that it is not in any way libellous or unlawful in Malaysia, that it does not infringe any copyright or other proprietary right. The undersigned hereby represents and warrants that he/she is the author of the paper, except for material that is clearly identified as to its original source, with permission notices from the copyright owners where required. The undersigned represents that he/she has the power and authority to sign and execute this agreement.
2. The undersigned author warrants that the paper entitled below has not been published elsewhere, and also it will not be submitted anywhere else for publication prior to acceptance/rejection by this Journal.
3. By submitting the paper entitled below, the undersigned author agrees to transfer the rights to publish and distribute the paper in an international e-journal (entitled above) to Publisher.
4. The undersigned author agrees to make a reasonable effort to conform to Publisher's submission guidelines and to liaise with the editor to ensure that the requirements of these guidelines are met to a reasonable degree.
5. The corresponding author signs for and accepts responsibility for releasing this material on behalf of any and all coauthors. This agreement is to be signed by at least one of the authors who has obtained the assent of the co-author(s) where applicable. After submission of this agreement signed by the corresponding author, changes of authorship or in the order of the authors listed will not be accepted.